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Thought K. H. Hashim Ash'ari

Written By thewinners on Monday, May 9, 2011 | 8:40 PM

A. Preliminary Ketokohan K. H. Hashim Ash'ari often diceburkan in social and political issues. This can be understood that some of the history of life K. H. Hashim Ash'ari also spent to seize the sovereignty of Indonesia against the Dutch and Japanese colonial hegemony. Moreover the organization she founded, Nahdatul Ulama, at that time quite active in social and political efforts.However, K. H. Hashim is a true Ash'ari brilliant figure in the movement and educational thinking. As can be seen, that K. H. Hashim Ash'ari would like sodium absorption ratio can be categorized as the first generation that develops pesantren education system, particularly in Java. [1]B. BiographyFull name K. H. Hashim Muhammad Hashim Ash'ari Ash'ari is ibn 'Abd al-Wahid. He was born in Gedang, a village in Jombang, East Java, on Tuesday 24 Dzu kliwon 1287 H. Al-Qa'idah coincides with the date February 14, 1871. [2]The origin and descent KH Hasyim M. Ash'ari is inseparable from the history of Majapahit kingdom and the kingdom IslamDemak. Salasilah offspring, as described by KH A. Wahab Hasbullah showed that unlicensed ancestral grandmother who is the second highest UB namely VI. Some say that unlicensed UB VI is Kartawijaya or Damarwulan of perkahwinannya with Ox-born Princess Champa Peteng (UB VII). [3]According to his mother, a sign of intelligence and ketokohan Hashim Ash'ari was apparent when he was still in the womb. In addition to the bladder is generally longer than the womb, his mother also never dreamed of seeing the moon fell from the sky into the womb. Dreams are presumably not a figment and flower bed alone, because it turns out was recorded in history, that at a very young age, 13 years, Hashim Ash'ari had dared to become a substitute teacher (substitute) in boarding schools to teach the students that not infrequently older than age itself. [4]

Kiai Hasyim leadership talent already apparent since childhood. When playing with peers, small Hashim always be a mediator. If you look at his friend violating rules of the game, he would call it. He made his friends loved to play, because it is like to help and protect others. [5]During his life, he gained from his father's own education, especially education in the field of sciences of the Qur'an and other religious literature. After that, he was exploring his education to various boarding schools, especially in Java, which includes Shone, Siwilan Buduran, Langitan Tuban, Demangan Bangkalan, and Sidoarjo, turned out to K. H. Hashim Ash'ari was impressed to continue his studies. He studied to K. H. Ya'kub that be an kiai in the pesantren. Kiai Ya'kub gradually feel the kindness and sincerity Hashim Ash'ari in their daily behavior, so then he set her up with his daughter, Khadija. Just at the age of 21 years, in 1892, Hashim married with a daughter Ash'ari K. H. Ya'kub them.After marriage, K. H. Hashim Ash'ari and his wife immediately make the pilgrimage. Upon returning from the holy land, in-law K. H. Hashim Ash'ari recommend studying in Mecca. It is possible, it is encouraged by the tradition at that time that a scholar is not yet sufficient knowledge to say if it is not the Koran at Mecca for years. There, K. H. Hashim Ash'ari studying various disciplines, including the science of fiqh Syafi'iyah and Hadith sciences, especially literature Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.While K. H. Hashim Ash'ari eager to learn, precisely when it has settled 7 months in Mecca, his wife died in child birth the first time that her baby was not saved. However, this does not break the spirit of learning to study.K. H. Hashim Ash'ari studied during the stay in Mecca to Sheikh Ahmad Amin Al-Athar, Sayyid ibn Sultan Hashim, Sayyid Ahmad ibn Hasan al-Athar, Sheikh Yamani Sayyid, Sayyid Ahmad ibn Alawi Al-Saqqaf, Sayyid Abbas Maliki, Sayid 'Abd Allah Al-Zawawi. Sheikh Salih Bafadhal, and Sheikh Sultan Hashim Dagastani.He stayed in Mecca for 7 years. And in 1900 AD or 1314 H. K. H. Ash'ari Hashim returned to his hometown. In that place he opened the religious recitation that within a relatively short time became famous in the area of ​​Java. [6]January 31, 1926, along with traditional Islamic figures, Kiai Hasyim Ash'ari establish NU, which means the resurrection of the clergy. This organization is growing and many of its members. Effect of Kiai Hasyim Ash'ari even greater with NU organization founded, with her friends. That is evidenced by the support of clerics in Central Java and East Java.K. H. Hashim Ash'ari is known as one of the founders of NU (Nahdlatul Ulama). During the Japanese occupation, Hashim Ash'ari been detained for 6 months, because it is against Japanese colonial rule in Indonesia. Because the allegations were not proved, he was released from custody, for his services in the struggle against the Dutch colonialists and Japanese, Hashim Ash'ari was awarded the title of hero of national independence by the President of Indonesia.In 1926 K. H. Hashim Ash'ari party founded Nahdatul Ulama (NU). Since its founding until 1947 Rais' Am (chairman), chaired by K. H. Hashim Ash'ari. He served as head of the Office of Religious Affairs in the days of Japanese occupation in Java and Madura.K. H. Ash'ari Hashim died in 1947 in Tebuireng, Jombang East Java. Almost all of his time devoted to the interests of religion and education. [7]
C. Thought K. H. Hashim Ash'ari on EducationRight on 26 Rabi 'al-Awwal 120 H. coincides February 6, 1906 AD, Hashim founded the Pondok Pesantren Tebuireng Ash'ari. Because of his persistence and sincerity in menyosialisakan science, in a few years later boarding a relatively crowded and famous. [8]According to Abu Bakr Aceh was quoted by the editor of the book Rais' Am NU hal.153 that KH. Hashim Ash'ari proposed system is changed from teaching at the seminary bandongan system become tutorial system which systematically with the aim to develop initiative and personality of the students. But it was rejected by his father, Ash'ari with reason will lead to conflict among senior scholars.In the year 1916 - 1934 Hashim Ash'ari open tiered teaching system. There are seven levels of classes and divided into two levels. First and second year siffir called early and siffir Thani is the preparation for entering a period of five years next level. At the beginning and siffir Thani siffir it diajarka Arabic as an important basis for surgery treasures of Islamic knowledge.Madrasah curriculum began coupled with the lessons Indonesian language (Malay), mathematics and earth sciences, and in 1926 coupled with Dutch subjects and history.Kiai Hasyim renowned as a scholar who can do a strict screening of the many religious traditions which he considers do not have the basics in the Hadith and he was very careful in observing developments ketarekatan tradition on the island of Java, whose values ​​have deviated from the true faith of Islam.According to Hashim Ash'ari, he retains the teachings of the sect to interpret the Koran and the hadith and the importance of practice tarikat. [9]As known in the history of traditional Islamic education, especially in Java, Kiai Hasyim role which later known as ash-Shaykh Hadrat (professor at boarding schools), very large in the formation of the leadership cadres of scholars boarding. Many of the famous boarding schools, especially, is growing in East Java and Central Java, developed by education scholars' Ulama Hasyim results. [10]He mentioned that the main goal is to practice the science pengetahan. It was intended to generate benefits of his knowledge as a preparation for life hereafter. There are two things to note in their studies, namely: first, the student must intend sacred in their studies, do not ever intend to worldly things and do not be abusive or menyepelikannya. Second, for teachers in the teaching of science should straighten out his intentions in advance, do not expect the material alone. Presumably he thought about the above, influenced by his views will matter Sufism (mysticism), which is one requirement for anyone who followed the Sufi path according to him is "good intentions and straight". [11] One of the monumental work K. H. Hashim Ash'ari who spoke about education is the book Al-Adab wa al-'Alim Muta'allum Yataqaff wa ma fi al-Mu'allimin Maqamat Ta'limih which was first printed in 1415 H. as is yellow book, the discussion on the issue of education with more emphasis on ethics education issues. Still do not deny some other educational aspects. His expertise in the field of hadith were also color the contents of the book. [12]Learning by Hashim Ash'ari is worship to seek pleasure of Allah, which leads man to gain the happiness of the world and the hereafter. Therefore learning should be intended to develop and preserve the Islamic values, not just to eliminate ignorance. Education should be able to deliver to the benefit of mankind, to the happiness of the world and the hereafter. Education should be capable of developing and preserving the good values ​​and norms of Islam to Muslims next generation, and successor to the nation. Muslims must come forward and do not be fooled by others, Muslims should be run in accordance with values ​​and norms of Islam. [13]Note the interesting and needs to be prioritized in discussing ideas and views offered by Hashim Ash'ari is ethics in education, where teachers have to get used to writing, composing and summarize, that in his time rarely encountered. And this he proved by the number of books of the essay or writing him.How advanced the idea Hashim Ash'ari than other figures of his day, even several years thereafter. And this thought grown and was reinstated by the thinker educators today, namely Harun Nasution, who said that should the professors at Islamic universities in particular to accustom myself to write. [14]Besides qualified in the fields of religion, Kiai Hasyim also experts in managing the pesantren curriculum, adjust teaching strategies, deciding actual societal issues, and authored the book. In 1919, when the community was hit by information about the cooperative as a form of economic cooperation, Kiai Hasyim not silent. He actively bermuamalah and seek alternative solutions to the economic development of people, based on classical Islamic books. He formed a kind of cooperative body called Syirkatul Inan Murabathati Expert li al-Tujjar. [15]According to Hashim Asya'ri there are some things that must be owned by a Muslim educator, some of it is civilized or ethical for religious / teachers. At least according to Hashim Ash'ari twenty ethics that must be owned by teachers or prospective teachers.First, always attempted to reach out to God in whatever circumstances, however and wherever.Second, have fear of Allah, fear or khouf under any circumstances whether in motion, silence, words and in deeds.Third, have a calm attitude in everything.Fourth, be careful or wara in words, and in deeds.Fifth, tawadhu, tawadhu is not in the sense of pride, can also be said humbly.Sixth, khusyu in all worship.Seventh, always guided by God in all things legal.eighth, do not use their knowledge only for worldly purposes only.ninth, not inferior in front of worshipers the world.Tenth, ascetic, in all things.Eleventh, who dropped his dignity menghindarai job.The twelve, avoid places that could lead to immoral.thirteenth, always turn syiar Islam.Fourteenth, to uphold the Sunnah Rasul.Fifteenth, keep the things that really at the recommended.Sixteenth, hanging out with fellow humans in a friendly,seventeenth, purifies the soul. Eighteenth always trying to sharpen their knowledge.Eighteen, open to the public, both suggestions and criticism.Nineteen, always take the knowledge from other people about the science does not know.Twenty, take the time to write or compose a book.By having twenty ethics are expected of teachers became a good education, educators are able to become exemplary students. On the other hand, when educators have ethics, then that too will be well-educated students who are ethical, too, because ideals have an important role in educating the morals of children.For that it would need to educators and prospective educators who telh be to have these ethics. [16]

D. Thought K. H. Hashim Ash'ari on SocialK. Activity H. Hashim Ash'ari in other social fields is to establish an organization Nahdatul Ulama, along with other great scholars in Java, such as Shaykh 'Abd al-Wahhab and Sheikh Bishri Syansuri. [17]Regarding the orientation and understanding of Islamic thought, scholars Hashim strongly influenced by one of his main teachers: Sheikh Mahfuz At-Tarmisi that many traditions Sheikh Nawawi. While studying in Mecca, in fact, he was familiar with the ideas of Muhammad Abduh's reform. But he tends to not approve the thoughts Abduh, especially in terms of freedom of thought and the neglect School. According to him directly back to the Qur'an and Sunnah without going through the results of Ijtihad sect of priests is not possible. Interpreting the Qur'an and Hadith directly, without examining the books of the scholars and priests of the sect, would only generate misconceptions about Islamic teachings. Background understanding of Islamic orientation like this that make scholars Hashim became one of the founders and main leaders Nadhatul Ulama. No less than 21 years he became Rais' Am, the general chairman Nadhatul Ulama (1926-1947). [18]KH Hasyim Ash'ari recommend to the scholars and teachers of religion in order to have attention to economic problems for the benefit of, "why do not you just set up a business entity, which each region there is one independent business entity." This statement KH Hasyim Asy 'ari when declaring the founding of Nahdlah at-Tujjar.Departing from the awareness that at-Tujjar Nahdlah established, with a single business entity which was then called shirkah al-Inan, who later date when NU standing container economy changed its name to al-Mu'awanah shirkah. [19]When used as a socio-religious organizations Masyumi political party in 1945, Kiai Hasyim was elected as chairman. A year later, September 7, 1947 (1367 H), K. H. Muhammad Hashim Ash'ari, who holds Hadrat Ash-Shaykh's death. Based on Presidential Decree No. 29/1964, he was recognized as a hero of national independence, a proof that he was not only the main character of religion, but also as national figures.In 1930 in the conference to a NU-3 Kiai Hasyim as Rais Akbar convey the main points of thoughts about the organization NU. The main points of mind is what came to be known as the Qanun Rights NU association (association basic law NU) [20].E. K. Work H. Hashim Ash'ariIn addition to actively teaching, preaching, and struggling, Kiai Hasyim also a prolific writer. He took the time to write in the morning, between 10.00 am until just before dzuhur. This time is used loosely time to read books, write, also to receive visitors.Works by Kiai Hasyim many of which are answers to many community problems. For example, when the Muslims are many who do not understand the question Tawheed or Aqeedah, Kiai Hasyim then compile the book of doctrinal camps, including al-Bayani Qalaid ma fi al-Aqaid Yajib min, Ar-Risala al-Tauhidiyah, Proceedings of the Expert Sunnah wa al-Jama ' ah, Al-Risala fi al-Tasawwuf, and so forth.Kiai Hasyim also often a columnist in magazines, such as magazine Nahdhatul Ulama ', Panji Society, and Swara Nahdhotoel Oelama'. Usually Kiai Hasyim writings contain the answers to the problems fiqhiyyah asked many people, such as wearing a tie of law, the law teaches writing to women, smoking laws, etc.. Besides discussing about Masail fiqhiyah, Kiai Hasyim also issued fatwas and advice to the Muslims, like al-Mawaidz, prayers for the Nahdhiyyin, cultivating virtues, the recommendation to uphold justice, and others. [21] As an intellectual, K. H. Hashim Ash'ari has donated a lot of things of value to the development of civilization, among them are a number of literary works written. Writings K. H. Hashim Ash'ari famous are as follows: (1) Al-Adab wa al-Muta'allimin'Alim, (2) Ziyadat Ta'liqat, (3) Al-Al-Wajibat Tanbihat Liman, (4) Al-Tract Al-Jami'at, (5) An-Nur al-Mubin fi al-Sayyid Mahabbah Mursalin, (6) Hasyiyah 'Ala bi Fath Al-Rahman Al-Wali Syarh Tract Ruslan li Isam Al-Sheikh Zakariya Al-Ansari, ( 7) al-Durr al-Muntatsirah fi Al-Masail Al-Tis'i Asyrat, (8) Al-Al-Nahy'an Tibyan Muqathi'ah Al-Ikhwan, (9) Al-Tract Al-Tauhidiyah, (10) Al-Bayan fi Qalaid Yajib ma min al-'Aqaid.Book, Al-'Alim wa Al-Muta'allimin is a book that contains the concept of education. This book was completed Sunday on 22 Jumadi Al-Thani in 1343. K. H. Hashim Ash'ari wrote this book based on the awareness of the need for literature that discusses the ethics (adab) in the search for knowledge. Studying religion is a very noble job so that those who seek shall show the noble ethics, too. [22]F. AnalysisTeaching is a profession that in tekuni by K. H. Hashim Ash'ari since young. Since its still in the boarding school he was often entrusted to teach the students a new entry by the teacher. In fact, when in Mecca he was already teaching. On his return from Mecca he helped his father taught at her father's hut, hut Nggedang. Later he founded his own boarding school in the village Tebuireng, Jombang. Hashim Ash'ari that people deliberately choose a location known to many gamblers, thieves, and drunks. Initially the choice was opposed by the friends and relatives. However, Hashim Ash'ari convince them that the message of Islam that should be more directed to the community that are far from religious life. Thus in 1899 in Tebuireng stood a hut that is very simple. Many years Hashim foster pesantren kiai, faced numerous obstacles and barriers, particularly from the surrounding community. Finally, the school's growing and growing rapidly.G. ConclusionFrom the above presentation, it can be known that ketokohan Hashim Ash'ari scholars among the community and Islamic organizations have been central not only traditional but also become the main type of a leader, as known in the history of traditional education, especially in Java. The role of Hashim Ash'ari scholars who became known as Ash-Shaykh sebutanHadrat (professor at boarding schools).Kiai Hasyim Ash'ari role in the formation of very large cadre of leaders of Islamic scholars, especially those grown in East Java and Central Java.In the field of religious organizations, he also actively organize the political struggle against the colonial period to move, in an effort to oppose the dominance of Dutch politics.And on September 7, 1947 (1367 H), K. H. Hashim Ash'ari, who holds Hadrat Ash-Shaykh's death. Based on Presidential Decree No. 29/1964, he was recognized as a hero of national independence, a proof that he was not only the main character of religion, but also as national figures.

[1]. A. Mujib, Dkk. Entelektualisme Pesantren, PT. Diva Pustaka. Jakarta. 2004 h. 319
[2]. Ibid, h. 319
[3]. httpwapedia.mobimsHasyim_Asy%27ari.htm
[4]. httphabibah-kolis.blogspot.com200801hasyim-asyari.html
[5]. httppesantren.tebuireng.netindex.phppilih=news&mod=yes&aksi=lihat&id=30.htm
[6]. A. Mujib, Dkk, Op Cit. h. 319-320
[7]. Ensiklopedia Islam, Departemen Agama, Jakarta 1993. h. 138-139
[8]. A. Mujib, Dkk, Op Cit. h. 320
[9]. httplppbi-fiba.blogspot.com200903komparasi-pemikiran-kh-ahmad-dahlan-dan.html
[10]. Ensiklopedia Islam, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve. Jakarta. 2003). h. 309
[11]. httphabibah-kolis.blogspot.com200801hasyim-asyari.html
[12]. Ensiklopedi Tokoh Pendidikan Islam, (PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve. 2005). h. 218
[13]. httphabibah-kolis.blogspot.com200801hasyim-asyari.html
[14]. httphabibah-kolis.blogspot.com200801hasyim-asyari.html
[15]. httppesantren.tebuireng.netindex.phppilih=news&mod=yes&aksi=lihat&id=30.htm
[16]. httpriwayat.wordpress.com20080707etika-pendidik-islam-menurut-kh-hasyim-asy%E2%80%99ari.htm
[17]. A. Mujib, Dkk, Op Cit. h. 320
[18]. Ensiklopedia Islam, Op Cit. h. 309
[19]. Nuril M Nasir Alumnus Ma’had al-Islamiyyah as-Salafiyyah asy-Syafi’iyah, Pamekasan, Madura httpopiniindonesia.comopinip=content&id=155&edx=TWVuZ2dlcmFra2FuIEVrb25vbWkgV2FyZ2EgTlU=.htm
[20]. Dewan Redaksi Ensiklopedia Islam. Ensiklopedia Islam, (Cet IV. PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve. Jakarta 1997). h. 102
[21]. httppesantren.tebuireng.netindex.phppilih=news&mod=yes&aksi=lihat&id=30.htm
[22]. A. Mujib, Dkk, Op Cit. h. 321

  

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